Thursday, September 19, 2019

Construction: Depletion of Copper, Tin, & Zinc :: Geology

Construction: Depletion of Copper, Tin, & Zinc Building Construction procedures involve the erection of various types of structures. The major trend in present-day construction continues away from handcrafting at the building site and toward on-site assembly of even larger, more integrated subassemblies manufactured away from the site. Construction in the United States is the product of a diverse group of subindistries, with many individuals and organizations involved in the construction of a single structure, from the manufacture of necessary components to final assembly. The major elements of a building are as follows: (1) the foundation, which supports the building and provides stability; (2) the structure, which supports all the imposed loads and transmits them to the foundation; (3) the exterior walls, which may or may not be part of the primary supporting structure; (4) the interior partitions, which also may or may not be part of the primary structure; (5) the environmental- control systems, including the heating, vent ilating, air-conditioning, lighting, and acoustical systems; (6) the vertical transportation systems, including elevators, escalators, and stairways; (7) communications, which may include such subsystems as intercommunications, public address , and closed-circuit television, as well as the more usual telephone wiring systems; and (8) the power, water supply, and waste disposal systems. What is Copper? Copper, symbol Cu, a brownish-red metallic element is one of the most widely used metals. Copper was know to prehistoric people and was probably the first metal from which useful articles were made. Copper objects have been found among the remains of many ancient civilizations, including those of Egypt, Asia Minor, China, southeastern Europe, Cyprus ( from which the word copper is derived), and Crete. Because of its many desirable properties, such as its conductivity of electricity and heat, its resistance to corrosion, its malleability and ductility, and its beauty, copper has long been used in a wide variety of applications. The principle uses are electrical, because of copper's extremely high conductivity, which is second only to that of silver. It can be used in outdoor power lines and cables, as well as in house wiring, lamp cords, and electrical machinery such as generators, motors, controllers, signaling devices, electromagnets, and communications equipment. Pure copper is soft but can be hardened somewhat by being worked. Alloys of copper, which are far harder and stronger than the pure metal, have higher resistance and so cannot be used for electrical purposes.

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